The style of cheongsam varies greatly, which can be summarized as follows:
Collar type: general collar, Penguin collar, impatient collar, collar without collar, water drop collar, bamboo leaf collar, horseshoe collar, etc.
Open-up: slant-open, medium-open, semi-round open, etc.
Button type: one-character buckle, phoenix tail buckle, Pipa buckle, butterfly buckle, monochrome buckle, double-color buckle, etc.
Sleeve type: sleeveless, shoulder-cutting, short sleeve, seven-minute sleeve, eight-minute sleeve, long sleeve, narrow sleeve, horn sleeve, big horn sleeve, horseshoe sleeve, reverse folding sleeve, etc.
Pendulum type: wide pendulum, straight pendulum, A-shaped pendulum, dress pendulum, fish tail pendulum, front short and back long, serrated pendulum, etc.
Rolling: Double roll, single roll.
As the most representative traditional costume in China, the existence and development of cheongsam is accomplished under specific cultural factors and social environment. The study of this humanistic factor of cheongsam can make us fully understand the traditional Chinese culture and take it as the basis for us to improve our modern life style (especially modern costume).
Among them, Qipao, as a traditional Chinese costume, was popular in the 1920s, and it is also the object of many women’s esteem in the contemporary era. As the unique gospel of Chinese women, the design of cheongsam is changing with the changes of times and interests. In the process, the emphasis on ethnic factors has become the focus of people’s first grasp.
1. Development and Evolution of Cheongsam
From the literal meaning, cheongsam refers to the long gown worn by the people of the banner (men and women), but only the long gown worn by the women of the Eight Banners has a blood relationship with the cheongsam of later generations, which is not customarily classified as the category of “cheongsam” such as the Royal robe and the boa gown used for ceremonial dress. In the early Qing Dynasty, Manchu women were forbidden to wear Han costumes, but in the late Qing Dynasty, Han women also imitated Manchu costumes. The quiet blending of the Manchu and Han women’s dress styles makes the difference between the two sides’dresses smaller and smaller, and gradually becomes the prelude to the popularity of Cheongsam in the whole country.
The origin of Cheongsam
Cheongsam is the traditional fashion of Chinese women rising in modern times, but not the formal traditional national dress. It not only has the vicissitudes of the past, but also has a new present. The cheongsam itself has a certain historical significance, coupled with a relatively high degree of appreciation, so it has a certain collection value. Although fewer women wear cheongsam in modern times, many parts of modern cheongsam still retain the traditional charm, while reflecting the beauty of fashion, so it also has a certain collection value.
In the strong feudal ethical atmosphere, it is impossible for women to expose their curves as they are now. As a result, the traditional cheongsam has been cut in a straight line, the chest, shoulders, waist and buttocks are completely straight, and the curve of the female body is not exposed.
(2) Evolution of Qipao
Cheongsam, as a traditional Chinese dress, was popular in the 1920s. It is also the object of many women’s esteem in the contemporary era. It is not only light and suitable, but also can fully reflect the beautiful posture and smooth lines of women.
Qipao originated from Qiren’s robes, and Beijing was the place where Qiren lived most. So until the end of Qing Dynasty and the beginning of Republic of China, Qipao belonged to the culture of Beijing School. The cheongsam of Qing Dynasty includes men’s and women’s gowns, but because cheongsam is a woman’s dress, it can also be said that cheongsam originated from the cheongmai’s gown.
As a traditional Chinese dress, cheongsam was popular in the 20th century, and it is also the object of many women’s esteem in the contemporary era. It is not only light and suitable, but also can fully reflect the beautiful posture and smooth lines of women.
In the 1920s, the cheongsam was still wide and straight; in line with the large sleeves popular in Qin Dynasty, the cheongsam had a larger hem and the whole body of the cheongsam was in the shape of “inverted big”. But the shoulder, chest and waist have been fitted. Zhang Ailing said, “The newly-born cheongsam is cold and square, with Puritan style. “This woman writer, who is good at observing and describing fashion, said that”the beginning”if it refers to the 1920s, then”Yan Fang Zheng”must be her childhood impression.
The 1930s and 1940s were the golden age of cheongsam and the most brilliant period of modern Chinese women’s wear. At that time, the shape of the cheongsam was slender, which coincided with the profile of women’s wear popular in Europe at that time. At this time, the cheongsam has completely jumped out of the limitation of the cheongmai’s gown, which is a new style of “Chinese and Western combination”. First, there is the term “genre”.
The part of cheongsam is westernized. It is treated with western style outside collar and sleeve, such as lotus leaf collar, western lapel, lotus sleeve, etc. or with left and right open flaps. Although the application of these reforms was not extensive, it showed that people were free in thought at that time, and the original program of cheongsam was no longer necessary to follow. The matching of cheongsam and Western-style jacket is also a characteristic of “genre”, which makes cheongsam enter into the international clothing family and can be combined with a variety of modern clothing. In modern words, it has been “internationalized and modernized”.
In the late 1930s, the “improved cheongsam” appeared again. The cutting method and structure of cheongsam are more westernized. Cheongsam is more suitable for chest and waist provinces. At the same time, shoulder seams and sleeves appear, which makes shoulder and axilla fit. Some people also make more soft shoulder pads, which are called “beauty shoulders”. This indicates that women are beginning to abandon the old ideal angle characterized by shoulder-cutting. These tailoring and structural changes were completed in Shanghai.

2. The Wearing Characteristics of Cheongsam
After the evolution of the first half of the 20th century, the basic characteristics and elements of cheongsam gradually stabilized. Cheongsam has become a classic dress for women. Classics are relatively stable, while fashions are ever-changing. But fashion designers often look for inspiration from the classic treasure house, and cheongsam is also one of the sources of inspiration for designers.
The characteristics of Qipao
The appearance characteristics of modern cheongsam generally require that all or part of them have the following characteristics: right-jacket open or half open, collar button, side open, single material, waist, sleeveless or short sleeves, etc. Opening a gown is only one of many characteristics of a cheongsam, not the only one, nor is it necessary. The style of Qipao is characterized by absorbing western art. It is new and flexible, with strong commercial flavor. It has a style of official style and is reserved and concise.
Classification of Qipao Styles
There are many styles of cheongsam, such as open skirt, Pipa skirt, slant skirt, double skirt; collar with high collar, low collar, no collar; cuff with long sleeve, short sleeve, sleeveless; open gown with high open gown, low open gown; and long cheongsam, short cheongsam, jacket, single cheongsam and so on.
The main changes of Qipao style are sleeve style and flaps shape. The main sleeve styles are: wide sleeve, narrow sleeve, long sleeve, medium sleeve, short sleeve or sleeveless. The main styles of the flaps are round, straight, square and pipa. The flaps of the flags are round and smooth. The flaps of the flags are plump and round-faced. The flags of the flags are slim and slender. The flaps of the flags are boldly reformed to suit different faces.

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